B. Diachkov1, Dr.Sci. (Geol.-Min.), Prof., Academician of NAS RK,

Z. Chernenko1, Cand. Sci. (Geol.-Min.), E-mail: Zinchernenko@mail.ru,

M. Mizernaya1, PhD,

E.V. Teut1, MSc, Senior Research Fellow, Research Engineer


IDENTIFYING PROSPECTIVE GOLD MINERALIZATION AREAS IN WESTERN KALBA (EASTERN KAZAKHSTAN): AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH


1Serikbaev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, 19 D. Serikbaeva Str., Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan


A new type of gold deposits In Eastern Kazakhstan is gold ores commonly found in hydrothermally altered carbonate rocks. We have suggested a geological-genetic model of their origin based on a volumetric stereo-metallogenic analysis of West Kalba and Zharma-Saur zones. Use has been made of comprehensive geologic-geophysical methods and high-precision analyses to develop criteria for predicting, prospecting and evaluating gold-carbonate formations, as well as identifying new prospective areas having category P2 and P3 gold resources. In addition to describing the geological structure of the Earth's surface, this model applies to exploring its deeper strata, hence the term "volumetric or stereo metallogeny".

Our research into the genesis of gold deposits in Western Kalba has yielded more accurate data on the geotectonic position of the gold-bearing structures and the age of gold mineralization, there being a connection between typical gold associations and particular ore parent formations. The local gold mineralization zones (West Kalba, Zhana-Boko-Zaisan), whose position is obliquely counter relative to the traditional north-westerly direction of the Altai structures, intersect the volcanic-sedimentary and terrigenous strata of different age (from Devonian to C2–3). These goldbearing zones are cut and metamorphosed by the Kalba-Narym Pluton granitoids, which points to their Pre-Permian age.

The results of the laboratory tests performed on modern equipment in the laboratories IRGETAS D.Serikbaev EKSTU, analytical centers of IGM SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia) and the Natural History Museum in the UK (London) showed that gold-sulfide ores (primary and oxidized) contain free gold in the form of fine particles in pyrite and arsenopyrite. The nanoscale gold particle sizes range from microns to 0,1–0,5 mm. The gold particles are bright yellow in color and high purity (an average of 935 ‰). According to the X-ray diffraction analysis, the gold-bearing jasperoids are composed mainly of silica and iron oxides. The results of the atomic absorption analysis of rocks showed that gold has a very uneven distribution (from 0,1 to 33,5 g/t), while the silver content is low (from 0,06 to 2,66 g/t). Electron microscopy yielded new data on the distribution of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd), associated chalcophiles and rare earth elements in the ores and host rocks, as well as mineral indicators for identifying new ore deposits.

Keywords: gold, unconventional type of gold mineralization, carbonate formation, assessment of the prospects, West Kalba, Charskaya zone, Eastern Kazakhstan.


References:

1. Radtke A.S., (1985). Geology of the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada, Professional Paper, U.S. Geological Survey, 1267.

2. D'yachkov B.A., Chernenko Z.I., Mayorova N.P., Mizernaya M.A., Kuzmina O.N., (2011). Geological conditions of apocarbonatite gold ores origin and distribution of East Kazakhstan [Geologicheskie usloviya formirovaniya i razmescheniya zolotorudnyih mestorozhdeniy apokarbonatnogo tipa Vostochnogo Kazahstana ]. VKGTU, Ust-Kamenogorsk - EKSTU, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 136 p.

3. D'yachkov B.A., Chernenko Z.I., .Kuz'mina O.N., (2005). Unconventional of source of gold ores of East Kazakhastan [Netradicionny'e istochniki zolotogo orudeneniya Vostochnogo Kazahstana]. Innovacionny'e tehnologii v geologicheskih issledovaniyah, Sbornik dokladov nauchno-prakticheskoy konferencii, posvyasch'ennoy 75-letiyu E.M. Selifonova Innovation technology in geological researches, Comp. Sc. Works of scientist-practical conf. dedicated 75 Anniv. of E.M. Selifoniv, Almaty, 76-78.

4. D'yachkov B.A., Mayorova N.P., Chernenko Z.I. et al., (2010). Metalogeny of gold in East Kazakhstan [Metallogeniya zolota Vostochnogo Kazahstana]. Mater. Vseros. Konf. "Samorodnoe zoloto, tipomorfizm mineral'ny'h associaciy, usloviya obrazovaniya mestorojdeniy, zadachi prikladny'h issledovaniy" IGEM RAN. – Mater. of All-United Conf. "Native gold, typomorphism of mineral associates, origin of ores and applied tasks", IGEM RAS, Moscow, Vol. I, 187-189.

6. D'yachkov B.A., Mayorova N.P., Chernenko Z.I. Teut E.V., (2014). On metallogenic specialization of Kalba (East Kazakhstan) [O metallogenicheskoy spetsializatsii granitoidov Kalbyi (Vostochnyiy Kazahstan)]. Materialyi Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii: Rol vyisshih uchebnyih zavedeniy v razvitii geologii" - Abstracts of the International scientific conference "Role of higher educational institutions in geology development", 31.03-03.04.2014, Kiev, Ukraine, 59-61.

7. Zhautikov T.M., (2010). Metallogeny and evolutionary trend of the ore process on gold deposits in Kazakhstan [Metallogeniya i evolyutsionnaya napravlennost rudnogo protsessa na mestorozhdeniyah zolota Kazahstana]. Materialy Vserossiyskoy konferentsii "Samorodnoe zoloto, tipomorfizm mineralnyih assotsiatsiy, usloviya obrazovaniya mestorozhdeniy, zadachi prikladnyih issledovaniy" - Abstracts of All-Russian Conference "Native gold, typomorphism of mineral associations, conditions of origin of deposits, the task of applied researches, M, IGEM RAS, Vol. 1, 193-195.

8. Kalinin Yu.A., Roslyakov N.A., Prudnikov S.G., (2006). Gold-bearing crust of weathering [Zolotonosnyie koryi vyivetrivaniya]. Novosibirsk: Akademicheskoe izdatelstvo "Geo" - Novosibirsk Academic Publishing House "Geo", 399.

9. Rafailovich M.S., (2009). Gold of Kazakhstan subsurface resources: geology, metallogeny, forecast-searching model [Zoloto nedr Kazahstana: geologiya, metallogeniya, prognozno-poiskovyie modeli]. Almatyi - Almaty, 304.

10. Rafailovich M.S., (2004). Unconventional gold deposits in Kazakhstan [Netraditsionnyie mestorozhdeniya zolota Kazahstana] Geonauki v Kazahstane: (Dokladyi kazahstanskih geologov). Almatyi: "KazGEO". - Earth Sciences in Kazakhstan (Kazakh Geologists Reports), Almaty, "KazGeo" Publishing, 159-176.

11. Chernenko Z.I., (2005). Carbonate formations in East Kazakhstan [Karbonatnyie formatsii Vostochnogo Kazahstana]. VKGTU, Ust-Kamenogorsk - EKSTU, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 74.

12. Tsoy V.D., Koroleva I.V., Svarovskaya V.V., Shnyirev D.V., (2002). On the role of carbonate rocks in the formation of various ore deposit formation types in Central Asia [O roli karbonatnyih porod v formirovanii razlichnyih rudno-formatsionnyih tipov mestorozhdenii Sredney Azii]. Materialyi nauchnoy konferentsii, posvyaschennoy 90-letiyu akademika H.M. Abdulaeva. Tashkent, Fan - Abstracts of scientific conference devoted to the 90th anniversary of academician H.M. Abdulaeva, Fan Publishing, Tashkent, 57-59.

13. Tsoy V.D., (2010). Apocarbonatite model of the gold mineralization of Uzbekistan [Apokarbonatnaya model formirovaniya zolotogo orudeneniya Uzbekistana]. Materialyi Vserossiyskoy konferentsii "Samorodnoe zoloto, tipomorfizm mineralnyih assotsiatsiy, usloviya obrazovaniya mestorozhdeniy, zadachi prikladnyih issledovaniy", M, IGEM RAN - Abstracts of All-Russian Conference "Native gold, typomorphism of mineral associations, conditions of origin of deposits, the task of applied researches, M, IGEM RAS, Vol. II, 289-291.