K. Troinich1, Postgraduate Student, Email: k.stan@i.ua,

B. Matviychuk1, Postgraduate Student, Email: molotokhammer@bigmir.net,

S. Vyzhva1, Dr. Sci. (Geol.), Prof., Email: vsa@univ.kiev.ua


GEOPHYSICAL TOMOGRAPHY: CURRENT STATE AND IMPLICATIONS

FOR THE PETROLEUM GEOLOGY INDUSTRY


1Institute of Geology, Taras Schevchenko National University of Kyiv, 90 Vasylkivska Str., Kyiv, 03022 Ukraine


This paper reviews current approaches to the implementation of the method of seismic tomography – a powerful tool which is used for solving the inverse problem in geophysics. Emphasis is laid on the application of geophysical tomography in the oil and gas industry at all field explortation and production stages. It has been shown that this method can be successfully used for the inversion of elastic and electrical parameters, anisotropy, etc. The threedimensional distribution of geophysical parameters in the explored medium obtained through imaging can be used to determine the geological (lithological) parameters such as mineral composition, structural and textural features, porosity, and fracture. A possible implementation of the inversion suggested is not into geophysical but directly into lithological parameters. It has also been demonstrated that tomography can be used to interpolate the well logging data in the inter-well space.

Keywords: inversion, geophysical tomography, lithological tomography, Geophysical Research Methodology.


References:

1. Vyzhva S.A., (2004). Geophysical monitoring of hazardous geological processes. Kyiv: Obryi, 234 (In Ukrainian).

2. Vyzhva S.A., Prodayvoda G. T., Gryshchuk P.I., (2010). Gravimagnetic tomography: formation and prospects of development. Visnyk of Kyiv university: Geology, 48, 33-35 (In Ukrainian).

3. Vyzhva S.A., Prodayvoda G. T., Virshylo I.V., (2010). Methodological and theoretical principles of seismic-gravity tomography. Visnyk of Kyiv university: Geology, 48, 29-33 (In Ukrainian).

4. Prodayvoda G.T., Vyzhva S.A., Virshylo I.V., Kozionova O.A., Prodayvoda T.G., (2005). Seismic-gravity method for determining the mineralogical composition of geological environment. Visnyk of Kyiv university: Geology, 34/35, 58-61 (In Ukrainian).

5. Timoshin U.V., (1978). Impulse seismic holography. Moscow, Nedra, 285 (In Russian).

6. Aifei B. & Wenhui Y., (2009). Optimization for fast ray tracing in block structure models. CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition, 4–7.

7. Aki K. & Richards P.G., (1980). Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods, Vol. II. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 373.

8. Anderson D.L. & Dziewonski A.M. (1984) Seismic tomography: Scientific American, October, 60-68.

9. Becht A., Tronicke J., Appel E. & Dietrich P., (2004). Inversion strategy in crosshole radar tomography using information of data subsets. Geophysics, 69(1), 222–230.

10. Benxi K., Jianzhong Z., Baofu C., & Bo, Z., (2007). Fat ray first arrival seismic tomography and its application. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 2822–2826.

11. Bishop T.N., Bube K.P., Cutler R.T., Langan R.T., Love P.L., Resnick J.R., Shuey R.T., Spindler D.A., Wyld H.W., (1985). Tomographic determination of velocity and depth in laterally varying media. Geophysics, 50(6), 903-923.

12. Bois, P., LaPorte, M., LaVergne, M. and Thomas, G., (1972). Well-to well seismic measurements. Geophysics, (3), 7, 471-480.

13. Bregman N. D., Bailey R. C. & Chapman C. H., (1989). Crosshole seismic tomography. Geophysics, 54(2), 200–215.

14. Cao J., He Z., Zhu J., & Fullagar P. K., (2003). Conductivity tomography at two frequencies. Geophysics, 68(2), 516–522.

15. Cavalca M. , Moore I., Zhang L., Ng S.L., Fletcher R.P. & Bayly M. P., (2011). Ray-based Tomography for Q Estimation and Q Compensation in Complex Media, EAGE Conference, Vienna.

16. Chang X., Liu Y., Wang H., Li F., & Chen J., (2002). 3D tomographic static correction. Geophysics, 67(4), 1275–1285.

17. Cheng N., & House L., (1996). Minimum traveltime calculation in 3-D graph theory. Geophysics, 61(6), 1895–1898.

18. Chiu, S.K.L., Stewart R.R., (1987). Tomographic determination of three-dimentional seismic velosity structure using well logs, vertical seismic profiles, and surface seismic data. Geophysics, 8, 1085-1098.

19. Cutler R.T., Bishop T.N., Wyld H.W., Shuey R.T., Kroeger R.A., Jones R.C., Rathbun M.L., (1983). Seismic Tomography: Formulation and Methodology. Geophysics, (1), 19–20.

20. Daily W., & Owen E. ,(1991). Cross-borehole resistivity tomography. Geophysics, 56(8), 1228–1235.

21. Dougherty D. E. & Eppstein M. J., (1998). Optimal 3-d geophysical tomography. Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, 249–256.

22. Durrani T. S. & Bisset D., (1984). The Radon transform and its properties. Geophysics, 49(8), 1180–1187.

23. Gheshlaghi F. & Santamarina J. C., (1998). Data Pre-Processing in Cross-Hole Geotomography. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 3(1), 41.

24. Guillaume P., Hollingworth S., Zhang X., Prescott A., Jupp R., Lambare G. & Pape O., (2012). Multi-layer tomography and its application for improved depth imaging. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 1–5.

25. Lambare G., Deladerriere N., Traonmilin Y., Toure J., Le-moigne J., & France C., (2009). Non-linear tomography for time imaging. 71st EAGE Conference & Exhibition — Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8-11 June 2009, 3984–3988.

26. Langan R., Lerche I. & Cutler R., (1985). Tracing of rays through heterogeneous media: An accurate and efficient procedure. Geophysics, 50(9), 1456-1465.

27. Lee T. J., Suh J. H., Kim H. J., Song Y. & Lee K. H., (2002). Electromagnetic traveltime tomography using an approximate wavefield transform. Geophysics, 67(1), 68.

28. Lines L., (1991). Applications of tomography to borehole and reflection seismology. The Leading Edge, 10, 11-17.

29. Lines L. R., (1991). Poor Man’ s Anisotropic Traveltime Tomography. Geophysics, (1984), 83–86.

30. Lines L. R., Schultz A. K., & Treitel S., (1988). Cooperative inversion of geophysical data. Geophysics, 53(1), 8–20.

31. Lines L., Tan H., Treitel S., Beck J., Chambers R., Eager J., Van Schaak M., (1995). Integrated reservoir characterization: Beyond tomography. Geophysics, 60(2), 354–364.

32. Lo T., Inderwiessen P., (1994). Fundamentals of Seismic Tomography. SEG, Geophysical Monograph Series, 187.

33. Lortzer, G. & Berkhout, A., (1992). An integrated approach to lithologic inversion-Part I: Theory. Geophysics, 57(2), 233–244.

34. McMechan G., (1983). Seismic tomography in boreholes. Geophys. J. R. astr. SOC, 74, 601-612

35. Pei D., (2009). Threedimensional traveltime tomography via LSQR with regularization. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, (1), 4004–4008.

36. Phillips, W. & Fehler M., (1991). Traveltime tomography: A comparison of popular methods. Geophysics, 56(10), 1639–1649.

37. Russell B., (1988). Introduction to Seismic Inversion Methods. Society of Exploration Geophysicist, 178.

38. Stewart R. R. & Chiu S. K. ,(1986). Tomographic Imaging of a Heavy Oil Reservoir Using Well Logs VSP And 3-D Seismic. SEG Annual Meeting, (Mm), 5–7.

39. Vidale J., (1990). Finite-difference calculation of traveltimes in three dimensions. Geophysics, 55(5), 521–526.

40. Witten A. J. (1996) Seismic Reflection Diffraction Tomography. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 1(3), 205.

41. Woodward M.J, Nichols D., Zdraveva O., Whitfield P., Johns T., (2008). A decade of tomography. GEOPHYSICS, 73(5), VE5-VE11.

42. Woodward M. J., (1992). Wave-equation tomography. Geophysics, 57(1), 15–26.

43. Wu R. & Toksoz M., (1987). Diffraction tomography and multisource holography applied to seismic imaging. Geophysics, 52(1), 11–25.

44. Zhang J., Xiamen U., Zhao B., Zhou H., & U T. T., (2009). Fat ray tomography with optimal relaxation factor. SEG Houston 2009 International Exposition and Annual Meeting, (1), 4044–4048.

45. Zhou C., Jiao J., Lin S., Sherwood J. & Brandsberg-Dahl S., (2011). Multiparameter joint tomography for TTI model building. Geophysics, 76(5), WB183–WB190.

46. Zhou H., (2003). Multiscale traveltime tomography. Geophysics, 68(5), 1639–1649.

47. Zhou H., (2006). Multiscale deformable-layer tomography. Geophysics, 71(3), R11–R19.