K. Bondar1, Cand. Sci. (Geol.), Senior Researcher, E-mail: ks_bondar@ukr.net


QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF MAGNETIC MAPS AND GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING OF LATE ROMAN SITES


1 Institute of Geology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 90 Vasylkivska Str., Kyiv, 03022 Ukraine


Many years of experience in geophysical survey on archaeological sites confirmed by excavation results led us to develop the basic principles and criteria for qualitative interpretation of magnetic anomalies on Late Roman sites. Data have been obtained from high-resolution magnetic surveys of settlements and burial grounds dating back to the 2nd – first half of the 5th century AD across a wide geographic range – from Bukovyna to the Left bank of the Dnieper.

Magnetic studies were conducted on four settlements and four burial grounds belonging to the Cherniakhiv culture, including the Komariv burial ground and settlement site (Chernivtsi region), the Malopolovetske-2A settlement site (Kyiv region), the Chervone-2 burial ground (Kyiv region), the Legedzyne burial ground (Cherkassy region), the Dmytrivka-3 settlement site (Poltava region) and the Viytenky-1 burial ground and settlement site (Kharkiv region).

Maps of induced magnetic anomalies were produced based on the results of field measurements using cesium magnetometers with 0.001 nT resolution. Processing and calculation of magnetic field anomalies were followed by generating a regular mesh (0.25x0.25 m). The types of magnetic anomalies associated with archaeological sites are determined by the following factors: size, intensity, positive/negative/alternating character, and the location of the negative part of an alternating anomaly relative to magnetic north.

The results of measurements and excavations on the Late Roman sites show that it is feasible to focus on a few types of magnetic anomalies when interpreting magnetic maps. Archaeological artefacts may account for weak (2…15 nT) positive anomalies covering areas of over 1 m2 on a settlement site. These tend to form over shallow housing – dugouts, as well as over massive ground dwellings, covered with a minimum of 1.5 mthick layer of soil (e.g. due to soil deposited from the slope). Alternating anomalies with the positive part having an isometric shape and covering an area of 4 m2 are also common on Late Roman settlement sites. The intensity of these anomalies can range from 5 to 100 nT or more, with the negative part always located on the north side. Such anomalies tend to form over furnaces and kilns.

Magnetic surveys on Late Roman burial sites only yielded reliable data on the anomalies associated with deep ground "princely" inhumation burials. The corresponding anomalies have intensity of up to 7 nT and cover areas of 3…8 m2. These form due to a difference in magnetization of the material filling the pit and that of the surrounding parent rock.

Keywords: magnetic induction, archaeological artefact, Late Roman time, Cherniakhiv culture, anomaly, settlement, burial ground.


References:

1. Bashkatov Yu.Yu., (2010). Monuments of Chernyakhiv culture in the South of Middle Dnieper [Pamyatniki chernyakhovskoj kultury yuga Srednego Podneprovya]. Germany-Sarmatia. – Kaliningrad, Kursk, 215-238 (In Russian).

2. Berezanskaya S.S., Vangorodskaya O.G., Kosaryova A.A., (1984). Report on working of Stavishche team of Forest-Steppe Right-bank expedition IA NAS USSR in 1984 [Otchyot o rabote Stavishchanskogo otryada Lesostepnoj Pravoberezhnoj expeditsii]. Scientific archive of the Institute of Archaeology of National academy of sciences of Ukraine, 1984/35a. (In Russian).

3. Bondar K.M., Virshylo I.V., Didenko S.V. et al., (2010). Effectiveness of highresolution magnetometry on Chernyakhiv culture cemeteries from III – beginning of V cent. in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine [Effektivnost vysokotochnoj magnitorazvedki pri issledovanii mogilnikov chernyakhovskoj kultury III – nachala V vv. Lesostepnoj zony Ukrainy]. Proc. 5th Inter. Workshop "Archaeology and Geoinformatics" - Trudy Pyatogo kruglogo stola "Arkheologiya i geoinformatika", Moscow, Inst. Of Archeology RAN, 6. CD. (In Russian).

4. Bondar K.M., Virshylo I.V., Lysenko S.D., Didenko S.V., (2008). What is buried under magnetic anomalies? Results from settlement Malopolovetsoe-2A in 2007. [Chto skryvaetsya pod magnitnymi anomaliyami? Itogi rabot na poselenii Malopolovetskoe-2A v 2007 g.]. Proc. 4th Inter. Workshop "Archaeology and Geoinformatics" - Trudy Chetvertogo kruglogo stola "Arkheologiya i geoinformatika", Moscow, Inst. Of Archeology RAN, 5. CD. (In Russian).

5. Bondar K.M., Lyubichev M.V., Solov'ev N.A., Didenko S.V., (2012). Space structure of Late Roman settlement Vojtenki from geophysical measurements [Prostranstvennaya struktura poseleniya pozdnerimskogo vremeni Voytenki po geofizicheskim dannym]. Proc. Inter. Conf. "Archaeology and Geoinformatics" - Trudy Pervoj Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii "Arkheologiya i geoinformatika", Moscow, Inst. Of Archeology RAN, 7. CD. (In Russian).

6. Vynokur I.S., Telegin D.Ya., (2005). Archaeology of Ukrane: Handbook for students of historical specialties [Arheologiya Ukrainy: Pidruchnyk dlya studentiv istorychnyh spetsialnostej VNZ]. Ed. 2. Ternopil, 348 p. (In Ukrainian).

7. Gotun I.A., Lysenko S.D., Petrauskas O.V., Shishkin R.G., (2002). Archaeological map of Kyiv region. Fastiv district [Arheologichna karta Kyivshchyny. Fastivskyj rayon]. Kyiv. (In Ukrainian).

8. Koshelyev I.M., (2004). Mahnitna rozvidka arkheolohichnykh pam'yatok [Magnetic prospecting of archaeological monuments]. Kyiv, 337 p. (In Ukrainian).

9. Lysenko S.D., Bondar K.M., Virshylo I.V. et al., (2009). Complex archaeological and magnetic studies on Malopolovetskoe-2A settlement in 2007 [Komplelsnye arheologicheskie i magnitometricheskie issledovanija poselenija Malopolovetskoe-2A v 2007 g.]. Archaeological researches in Ukraine in 2006-2007 yrs. - Arheologichni doslidzhennya v Ukaini u 2006-2007 rokah, Kyiv, 202-207. (In Russian).

10. Lyubichev M.V., (2011). Onground buildings on Chernyakhiv culture settlement Vojtenki-1 (results of excavations in 2004-2009 yrs) [Nazemnye sooruzheniya na poselenii chernyahovskoj kultury Vojtenki (po materialam raskopok 2004-2009 gg.)]. ADIU, 6, 111-120 (In Russian).

11. Lyubichev M.V., (2006). About buildings on Chernyakhiv culture settlement Vojtenki-1 (results of excavations in 2004-2005 yrs) [O postrojkah na selishche chernyahovskoj kultury Vojtenki 1 (po raskopkam 2004-2005 godov)]. ALLU, 2, 79-89. (In Russian).

12. Magomedov B.V., Didenko S.V. (2009). Chernyakhiv culture cemetery near Legedzyne. Excavations of 2008-2009 yrs [Mogylnyk chernyakhovskoj kultury u sela Legedzino. Raboty 2008-2009 gg. ]. In: Kruts V.A., Korvin-Piotrovsky A.G., Menotti F. et al. Giant settlement of Trypillya culture Talyanki. Studies of 2009 [Tripolskoe poselenije-gigant Tal`yanki. Issledovanija 2009 g.]. Kyiv, 56-92 (In Russian).

13. Magomedov B.V., Didenko S.V., Kozhemyachenko V.B., (2010). Chernyakhiv culture cemetery near Legedzyne. Excavations in 2010 [Mogylnyk chernyakhovskoj kultury u sela Legedzino. Raboty 2010 g. ]. In: Kruts V.A., Korvin-Piotrovsky A.G., Menotti F. et al. Giant settlement of Trypillya culture Talyanki. Studies of 2010 [Tripolskoe poselenije-gigant Tal`yanki. Issledovanija 2010 g. ]. Kyiv, 32-93. (In Russian).

14. Petrauskas O.V., Koval O.A., Avramenko M.O., (2013). Excavations on Chernyakhiv culture cemetery Chervone-2 in Kyiv region in 2012 [Rozkopky mogylnyka chernyahivskoji kultury Chervone-2 na Kyivshchyni u 2012 r.]. Archaeological researches in Ukraine in 2012 - Arheologichni doslidzhennya v Ukaini u 2012 r., Kyiv, Lutsk, 207-208. (In Ukrainian).

15. Petrauskas O.V., Koval O.A., Avramenko M.O. et al., (2013). Short report on researches on Chernyakhiv culture settlement and cemetery near Komariv in 2013 [Korotkyj zvit pro doslidzhennya poselennya ta mogylnyka komariv.in.ua/files/zvit_komariv-2013.pdf]. (In Ukrainian).

16. Petrauskas O.V., Shyshkin R.G., Babenko R.V., (2009). Excavations on Chernyakhiv culture cemetery Chervone-2 in Kyiv region in 2006 [Rozkopky mogylnyka chernyahivskoji kultury Chervone-2 na Kyivshchyni u 2006 r.]. Archaeological researches in Ukraine in 2006-2007 yrs – Arheologichni doslidzhennya v Ukaini u 2006-2007 rokah, Kyiv, 25-28. (In Ukrainian).

17. Becker H., Fassbinder J.W.E., (1999). Magnetometry of a Scythian settlement in Siberia near Cicah in the Baraba Steppe 1999. 3rd Internation. Conf. on Archaeol. Prospection, 168-172.

18. Campana S., Piro S. (2009). Seeing the unseen. Geophysics and Landscape Archaeology. London, Taylor and Francis Group, 330 p.

19. Pap ., Bondar ., (2014). On magnetic susceptibility of soils and pottery from Vijtenky settlement. XIIIth Internation. Conf. on Geoinformatics. Theoretical and Applied Aspects (12-15 may 2014, Kiev, Ukraine [CD]. (in Ukrainian).

20. Rassmann K., Ohlrau R., Hofmann R., Mischka C., Burdo N., Videjko M., Muller J., (2014). High precision Tripolye settlement plans,demographic estimations and settlement organization. Journal of Neolithic Archaeology, 16, 63–95 [doi 10.12766/jna.2014.3].

21. Zollner H., Makhortykh S., Orlyuk M., Ullrich B., (2007). Results from a geophysical Prospection of the skythian Settlement of Belsk. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archeology. Berlin, 2-6 April. Layers of Perception. Program and Abstracts, Berlin, 43.